Makharij
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     Makharij explains where the sound of each Arabic haroof (letter) should come from and each is pronounced in it's own style.  Below are listed all of the haroofs of the Arabic alphabet:

Biyan of Makharij:

  1.  Aqsa-i-Halaq:  Lower part of throat, that is close to the chest.  Sounds of ء (Hamza) and ه (Ha) come from this makharij.

  2. Wast-i-Halaq:  Middle part of throat.  Sounds of ع (Ain) and ح (Hah) come from this makharij. 

  3. Adna-i-Halaq:  Upper part of throat.  Sounds of غ (Ghain) and خ (Kha) come from this makharij.

****All the above haroof that come from throat are called Haroof-i-Halaq.****

  1. The sound of ق (Qaf) comes from the root of tongue and the end of ceiling of mouth.

  2. The sound of ك (Kaf) comes from the root of tongue and a little ahead of the ceiling of mouth.

  3. The sounds of ش (Sheen), ج (Jeem), and ی (Yeh) come from the middle of tongue touching the ceiling of the mouth.

  4. The sound of ض (Dad) comes from Hafa-i-Lisan (see map) touching the Twahin (molars).

  5. When the corner of the tongue (Tarf-i-lisan) and side of tongue Hafa-i-Lisan touch sanaya, rubai, and zawahik (See map).  Sound of ل (Lam) come from this makharij (See map for this haroof).

  6. The corner of tongue (Tarf-i-lisan) touches the sanaya and rubai (See map).  Sound of ن (Nun) come from this makharij.

  7. The makharij of ر (Ra) is close to the makharij of ن (Nun) but the back of the tongue is used also in this makharij.

  8. Tip of the tongue (Noke-i-Lisan) touches some part of sunaya ulya, and sunaya sufla.  Sounds of ص (Sad), ز (Zai), and س (Seen) come from this makharij (see map).

  9. When the inner part of the lower lip touches the sunaya ulya (see map) then the sound of ف (Feh) come from this makharij.

  10. When the tip of the tongue touches the upper part of the sunaya ulya (see map) then the sounds of ظ (Zah), ذ (Thal), and ث (Theh) come from this makharij.

  11. When the tip of the tongue touches the root of the sunaya ulya (see map) then the sounds of ت (Teh), د (Dal), and ط (Tah) come from this makharij. 

  12. Sound of ب (Ba) come from the inner wet portion of both lips.

  13. Sound of م (Meem) come from the outer dry portion of both lips.

  14. Sound of و (Waw) comes from the incomplete joining of both lips.